ENGLISH CIVIL WAR

From 1642 to 1648 people in the British Isles were split by a war between King Charles I and Parliament. The king was said to be influenced by his wife, a French Catholic. He brought in unpopular taxes and tried to force his will on Parliament. This led to civil war.

WHO WAS “OLD IRONSIDES”?

Oliver Cromwell (1599–1658) was a farmer and Member of Parliament. In the English Civil War he proved himself to be a brilliant soldier. He and his armored troopers became known as Ironsides. He led a savage invasion of Catholic Ireland in 1649.

WHO WERE ROUNDHEADS AND CAVALIERS?

The forces of Parliament included many of the more extreme Protestants, called Puritans (also known as Roundheads, because of their short haircuts). The royalists were called Cavaliers (meaning “knights”). Their war ended with the capture of Charles I.

WHO WERE THE DIGGERS AND LEVELERS?

The leaders of the Parliamentary forces were mostly country landowners, squires, and merchants. Many of the poor people who fought for them wanted the land to be shared and equal rights for all. Cromwell crushed these Diggers and Levelers in 1649.

WHAT WAS THE COMMONWEALTH?

In 1649 a republic, or Commonwealth, was declared. There was now a Council of State instead of a king. However, the army was impatient for greater change, so in 1653 power was handed over to Oliver Cromwell, who was given the title “Lord Protector”. Cromwell died and under his son the Commonwealth soon collapsed. In 1660 the monarchy was restored, but with limited powers.

FIND OUT MORE

Monarchy

Copyright © 2007 Dorling Kindersley

highlights

Top 10 Sweet 16 Birthday Gifts
Your daughter's sweet 16 is a big milestone in her life. Celebrate this special occasion with one of these top gifts for girls turning 16.

Find Today's Newest & Best Children's Books!
Looking for newly released books for your child? Try our new Book Finder tool to search for new books by age, type, and theme, brought to you by Galactic Hot Dogs.

Printable Lists of the Top 100 Baby Names
Need help with baby name ideas? Use our printable list of the top 100 girl names and top 100 boy names of 2015 to help you brainstorm and narrow down your favorites.

Registered for Kindergarten — Now What?
Wondering what to do now that you've signed your child up for kindergarten? Try our award-winning Kindergarten Readiness app! This easy-to-use checklist comes with games and activities to help your child build essential skills for kindergarten. Download the Kindergarten Readiness app today!

stay connected

Sign up for our free email newsletters and receive the latest advice and information on all things parenting.

Enter your email address to sign up or manage your account.

Facebook icon Facebook icon Follow Us on Pinterest

editor’s picks